Postsurgical Outpatient Use of Limb Compression Devices for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis
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Patients undergoing major surgery are at increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), together known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Patients who are having major orthopedic surgery (defined here as total hip arthroplasty [THA], total knee arthroplasty [TKA] and hip fracture surgery [HFS]) are at particularly high risk. Risk of DVT is increased due to venous stasis of the lower limbs as a consequence of immobility during and after surgery. In addition, direct venous wall damage associated with the surgical procedure itself may occur. DVTs are frequently asymptomatic and generally resolve when mobility is restored. However, some episodes of acute DVT can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The most serious adverse consequence of an acute DVT is a PE, which can be fatal; this occurs when the DVT detaches and migrates to the lungs. In addition, DVT may produce long-term vascular damage that leads to chronic venous insufficiency. Without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of venographically detected DVT is approximately 42% to 57% after total hip replacement, and the risk of PE is approximately 1% to 28%.(4) Other surgical patients may also be at increased risk of VTE during and after hospitalization. For example, it is estimated that rates of VTE without prophylaxis after gynecologic surgery is about 15% to 40%.(5)
Thus, antithrombotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and other surgical patients at increased risk of VTE. For patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, clinical practice guidelines published in 2012 by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommend that one of several pharmacologic agents or mechanical prophylaxis be provided rather than no thromboprophylaxis.(1) The guidelines further recommend the use of pharmacologic prophylaxis during hospitalization, whether or not patients are using a limb compression device.
A minimum of 10 to 14 days of prophylaxis is recommended, a portion of which can be postdischarge outpatient use.
The ACCP guidelines noted that compliance is a major issue with limb compression devices used for thromboprophylaxis and recommend that, if this prophylactic option is selected, use should be limited to portable, battery-operated devices. Moreover, it is recommended that devices be used for 18 hours per day. A 2009 nonrandomized study found that there was better compliance with a portable battery-operated limb compression device compared to a nonmobile device when used by patients in the hospital following hip or knee replacement surgery.(6)
The ACCP also issued guidelines on VTE prophylaxis in nonorthopedic surgery patients.(3) For patients undergoing general or abdominal-pelvic surgery who have a risk of VTE of 3% or higher, the ACCP recommends prophylaxis with pharmacologic agents or intermittent pneumatic compression rather than no prophylaxis. For patients at low risk for VTE (about 1.5%), the guidelines suggest mechanical prophylaxis. Unlike the guidelines on major orthopedic surgery, which recommend a minimum of 10-14 days of VTE prophylaxis, the guideline on nonorthopedic surgery patients does not include a general timeframe for prophylaxis. They do, however, define “extended duration” pharmacologic prophylaxis as lasting 4 weeks; the latter is recommended only for patients at high risk for VTE, undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer who are not otherwise at high risk for major bleeding complications.
National clinical guidelines have not specifically recommended use of limb compression devices in the outpatient setting. However, especially with the availability of portable, battery-operated devices, there is interest in use of outpatient limb compression devices for DVT following discharge from the hospital for major orthopedic and nonorthopedic surgery.
Various pneumatic and peristaltic limb compression devices, with indications including prevention of DVT, have been cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the 510(k) process. Portable devices that have been cleared by the FDA include:
Venowave™ VW5 (Venowave Inc., Stouffville, Ontario, Canada): The device is a peristaltic pump that is strapped to the leg below the knee. It is powered using a single NiMH AA battery.
ActiveCare+SFT® System (Medical Compression Systems Ltd, or Akiva, Israel): The device applies sequential pneumatic compression to the lower limb; it has the option of being battery-operated. Foot compression is achieved with use of a single-celled foot sleeve. Calf and thigh compression requires use of a 3-celled cuff sleeve.
Restep® DVT System (Stortford Medical LLC, West Windsor, NJ): This is a lightweight device that utilizes single chamber pressure cuffs attached to the patient’s lower legs.
Kendall SCD™ 700 Sequential Compression System (Covidien, Mansfield, MA): This pneumatic compression device can be used in the clinic or at home. It has a 2-pronged plug and is not battery-operated.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery may be considered medically necessary in patients with a contraindication to pharmacological agents, ie, at high risk for bleeding.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery is considered investigational in patients without a contraindication to pharmacological prophylaxis.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis after major nonorthopedic surgery or nonmajor orthopedic surgery may be considered medically necessary in patients who are at moderate or high risk of VTE (see Policy Guidelines) with a contraindication to pharmacological agents, ie, at high-risk for bleeding.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis after major nonorthopedic surgery or nonmajor orthopedic surgery is considered investigational in patients who are at moderate or high risk of VTE without a contraindication to pharmacological prophylaxis and in patients who are at low risk of VTE.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis after all other surgeries is considered investigational.
Outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis for periods longer than 30 days postsurgery is not medically necessary.
For purposes of this policy, “major orthopedic surgery” includes total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), or hip fracture surgery (HFS).
Guidance on determining high risk for bleeding
The ACCP guidelines on prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients list the following general risk factors for bleeding(1):
- Previous major bleeding (and previous bleeding risk similar to current risk)
- Severe renal failure
- Concomitant antiplatelet agent
- Surgical factors: history of or difficult-to-control surgical bleeding during the current operative procedure, extensive surgical dissection, and revision surgery
The guidelines note, however, that “specific thresholds for using mechanical compression devices or no prophylaxis instead of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis have not been established.”
A clinical guideline from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2011) states(2):
Patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty are at risk for bleeding and bleeding-associated complications. In the absence of reliable evidence, it is the opinion of this work group that patients be assessed for known bleeding disorders like hemophilia and for the presence of active liver disease which further increase the risk for bleeding and bleeding-associated complications. (Grade of Recommendation: Consensus) Current evidence is not clear about whether factors other than the presence of a known bleeding disorder or active liver disease increase the chance of bleeding in these patients and, therefore, the work group is unable to recommend for or against using them to assess a patient's risk of bleeding. (Grade of Recommendation: Inconclusive)
Guidance on duration of use
In patients with contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis who are undergoing major orthopedic surgery (THA, TKA or HFS), the ACCP guidelines are consistent with use of intermittent limb compression devices for 10 to 14 days after surgery. (1) The ACCP suggestion on extended prophylaxis (up to 35 days) was a weak recommendation that did not mention limb compression devices as an option.
In the ACCP guideline on VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing nonorthopedic surgery, the length of standard duration or “limited duration” prophylaxis was not defined. However, “extended duration” pharmacologic prophylaxis was defined as 4 weeks; this was recommended only for patients at high risk for VTE undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer and not otherwise at high risk for major bleeding complications.
Guidance on risk level for patients undergoing nonorthopedic surgery
The ACCP guidelines on prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgery patients included the following discussion of risk levels(3):
In patients undergoing general and abdominal-pelvic surgery, the risk of VTE varies depending on both patient-specific and procedure-specific factors. Examples of relatively low-risk procedures include laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy, transurethral prostatectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, and unilateral or bilateral mastectomy. Open abdominal and open-pelvic procedures are associated with a higher risk of VTE. VTE risk appears to be highest for patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer…. Patient-specific factors also determine the risk of VTE, as demonstrated in several relatively large studies of VTE in mixed surgical populations. Independent risk factors in these studies include age at least 60 years, prior VTE, and cancer; age >60 years, prior VTE, anesthesia at least 2 h, and bed rest at least 4 days; older age, male sex, longer length of hospital stay, and higher Charlson comorbidity score; and sepsis, pregnancy or postpartum state, central venous access, malignancy, prior VTE, and inpatient hospital stay more than 2 days. In another study, most of the moderate to strong independent risk factors for VTE were surgical complications, including urinary tract infection, acute renal insufficiency, postoperative transfusion, perioperative myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. (pp. 13-14)
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) proposed the following risk classification for VTE in patients undergoing major gynecological surgery (available online at: http://guidelines.gov/content.aspx?id=11429):
Low: Surgery lasting less than 30 minutes in patients younger than 40 years with no additional risk factors.
Moderate: Surgery lasting less than 30 minutes in patients with additional risk factors; surgery lasting less than 30 minutes in patients age 40 to 60 years with no additional risk factors; major surgery in patients younger than 40 years with no additional risk factors.
High: Surgery lasting less than 30 minutes in patients older than 60 years or with additional risk factors; major surgery in patients older than 40 years or with additional risk factors.
Highest: Major surgery in patients older than 60 years plus prior venous thromboembolism, cancer, or molecular hypercoagulable state.
BlueCard/National Account Issues
State or federal mandates (e.g., FEP) may dictate that all devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may not be considered investigational. Therefore, FDA-approved devices may only be assessed on the basis of their medical necessity.
The policy was created in November 2012 with a search of the MEDLINE database. Updated literature reviews were conducted regularly, most recently through October 20, 2014. The key published literature is summarized below.
Venous thromboembolismprophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery patients
Patients without a contraindication to prophylaxis with pharmaceutical agents
Anticoagulation is the mainstay of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after major surgery and is sometimes continued into the outpatient setting. Treatment with limb compression devices may offer additional benefit when used in conjunction with anticoagulation in the inpatient setting but is not commonly used in the outpatient setting. The ideal study design to evaluate whether there is benefit in the outpatient setting would be a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing outpatient anticoagulation alone to anticoagulation plus a limb compression device. Key health outcomes include incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), as well as measures of functional status and/or quality of life associated with these outcomes.
Randomized controlled trials
No RCTs were identified comparing combined use of pneumatic compression and anticoagulants with anticoagulants alone that are specifically conducted in the outpatient setting. Several systematic reviews of RCTs have addressed the issue of combined prophylaxis, but they did not focus on outpatient treatment.(7-9) For example, in 2012, Kakkos et al published a meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating combined use of anticoagulation and mechanical DVT prophylaxis following joint replacement surgery; however, the study focused on inpatient thromboprophylaxis.(8) The authors identified 4 trials that compared anticoagulation alone to anticoagulation plus use of limb compression devices. Three of the 4 studies used limb compression devices only until discharge from the hospital. In the fourth study, the article did
not clearly state that that pump use was limited to the inpatient setting, but inpatient use was implied, eg, the article stated that staff checked several times a day to ensure correct use of the pump system. More recent systematic reviews were similar; the authors reviewed RCTs on compression for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis and did not specifically describe outpatient use of pneumatic compression devices.(7,9)
There are several reasons why the benefit of limb compression devices in the hospital setting may not extrapolate to benefit in the outpatient setting. First, the level of mobility is necessarily less in the hospital than in the outpatient setting, indicating a different risk for DVT. Also, the use of limb compression devices in the hospital can be more highly controlled and monitored. In the outpatient setting, there are questions about the degree of compliance with the devices, including the ability to correctly use them in the absence of professional supervision. No comparative studies were identified that focused on compliance with limb compression devices in the outpatient setting.
Nonrandomized Controlled Studies
A 2014 study by Colwell et al analyzed data from an industry-funded registry study on a mobile compression device (ActiveCare+SFT).(10) The study compared outcomes of patients included in the registry with outcomes reported in previously published studies of thromboembolism prophylaxis using pharmacologic agents. Data were evaluated on 3060 patients at 10 U.S. sites who had undergone arthroplasty of a lower-extremity joint and used the mobile compression device for at least 10 days. The device was used both in the inpatient setting and after discharge; length of hospital stay was not reported. Twenty-eight (0.92%) of the 3060 patients developed symptomatic VTE. In other published studies, the rate of symptomatic VTE after lower-extremity joint arthroplasty was reported as 2.2% for warfarin, 1.1% for enoxaparin, 0.64% for rivaroxaban, and 1.2% for dabigatran. The mobile compression device was found to be noninferior using a predefined noninferiorty 1% margin to pharmacologic prophylaxis. A limitation of the study was lack of randomization and including historical comparison groups. Moreover, it is unclear what proportion of time the mobile compression devices were used in the outpatient setting.
Patients With a Contraindication to Prophylaxis Using Pharmaceutical Agents
Patients with contraindications to anticoagulants need to be treated with nonpharmacologic measures. The ideal study design for this question would be an RCT comparing prophylaxis with limb compression devices alone in the outpatient setting with no prophylaxis or to alternative methods of prophylaxis.
Randomized Controlled Trials
No RCTs using this comparison were identified. However, 1 recent RCT provided data that might be useful for answering the question of whether outpatient use of limb compression devices are beneficial in the absence of outpatient anticoagulant use. The study, reported in 2 publications, one in 2010 and the other in 2011, was conducted at multiple centers in the United States and included 395 patients undergoing total hip replacement.(11,12) Individuals with a previous history of thrombosis, known coagulation disorder, solid malignant tumor, peptic ulcer disease or mental disorder were excluded. Patients were randomized to 10 days of DVT prophylaxis using either low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or a mobile limb compression device (ActiveCare+SFT). Treatment continued until 10 days after surgery in both groups; patients received a variable portion of their treatment after hospital discharge. Patients in the compression device group could also receive aspirin if recommended by their doctor. Patients were examined with bilateral duplex ultrasound on day 10 to 12 after surgery. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.2 days in both groups. Length of hospital stay ranged from 2 days to 10 days; thus, patients had between 0 days and 8 days of outpatient use of their assigned method of prophylaxis. According to ultrasound findings, 8 of 196 (4.1%) in the limb compression group and 8 of 190 (4.2%) in the LMWH group had a DVT. In addition, 2 pulmonary emboli were detected in each group. The incidence of VTE events did not differ significantly between groups. However, the rate of major bleeding was significantly higher in the LMWH group. A total of 11 (6%) of patients in the LMWH group had a major bleeding event compared with no patients in the limb compression group (p<0.001). Rates of minor bleeding were similar in the 2 groups; 78 (40%) in the LMWH group and 74 (37%) in the limb compression group. In addition, compliance with the mobile compression devices was monitored using internal timers in the device. According to these data, patients used the device for a mean of 11 days (range, 1-15 days) and for a mean of 20 hours per day. Mean use of the device was 83% of possible usable time. Findings on compliance were not reported separately for inpatient and outpatient use of the devices.
There is very little published evidence on the efficacy of outpatient use of limb compression devices for DVT prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery. There are no RCTs that evaluate outpatient use of limb compression as an adjunct to pharmacologic prophylaxis in patients without a contraindication to anticoagulants. Some RCTs have evaluated the inpatient use of limb compression as an adjunct to pharmacologic agents, but the results of these trials might not be able to be extrapolated to the outpatient setting. There is also a lack of evidence on compliance with limb compression devices in the outpatient setting. National clinical guidelines support the use of limb compression devices DVT prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery in patients who are not candidates for pharmacologic prophylaxis due to a high risk of bleeding. In addition, 1 RCT that reported similar rates of postoperative DVT in patients who received limb compression devices or LMWH provides some evidence in support of limb compression devices as the sole intervention in the outpatient setting. This study was limited in that much of the treatment occurred in the hospital, and patients with a known coagulation disorder were excluded from participation.
VTE Prophylaxis in Major Nonorthopedic Surgery Patients
Patients With and Without a Contraindication to Prophylaxis Using Pharmaceutical Agents
Randomized Controlled Trials
No RCTs were identified that specifically addressed the comparison between inpatient-only and inpatient and outpatient use of limb compression devices as an adjunct to anticoagulant use in patients undergoing major nonorthopedic surgery. Moreover, no RCTs were identified that compared intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in the outpatient setting with no prophylaxis beyond inpatient use in patients with contraindications to pharmaceutical agents. Two systematic reviews of RCTs on VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing major nonorthopedic surgery were examined, one a Cochrane review on VTE prevention in high-risk patients and the other on VTE prevention after gynecologic surgery; neither metaanalysis included RCTs relevant to the research question being considered.(13,14)
However, an RCT by Sobieraj-Teague et al may contribute some relevant data.(15) The nonblinded study, conducted in Canada, compared inpatient and outpatient use of Venowave, a portable battery-operated IPC device, to usual care only in 150 adult patients undergoing cranial or spinal neurosurgery. As part of usual care, all patients were prescribed graduated compression stockings and early mobilization. Patients could also receive pharmacologic treatment at the discretion of their physician. A total of 19 of 75 patients (25%) in the Venowave group and 26 of 75 patients (35%) in the control group received anticoagulants (unfractionated or LMWH) and an additional 4 (5%) in the Venogram group and 7 (9%) in the control group used aspirin. In the Venowave group, devices were worn until development of VTE, patient refusal, until undergoing a screening bilateral venogram at day 9 (±2 days) or earlier if patients were discharged from the hospital earlier and were unwilling to return for a venogram. The median day of hospital discharge was day 4. Patients who continued using the Venowave device at home received home visits at least daily to optimize compliance. Eight patients did not undergo screening venography. Mean time to screening was 7.3 days in the Venowave group and 7.5 days in the control group. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of asymptomatic DVTs and symptomatic PEs. VTE occurred in 3 patients (4%) in the Venowave group and 14 (19%) in the control group. The difference between groups was statistically significant (risk ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.05 to 0.75). Most of the VTEs were asymptomatic, and there were no PEs. Two patients in the control group and none in the Venowave group experienced a symptomatic DVT. Among the 75 evaluable patients in the Venogram group, 17 (23.3%) were continuous users, 39 (53.4%) were intermittent users, and 17 (23.3%) discontinued use of the device before their venogram assessment. Compliance might have been lower if patients had not
received daily home visits.
The Sobieraj-Teague study did not specifically exclude patients with a contraindication to pharmaceutical agents. Moreover, only about 30% of participants were prescribed heparin or aspirin. This suggests that study findings might be applicable to patients who are not taking pharmaceutical agents, ie, including those with a contraindication. Generalizability of study findings is not clear, however, as the authors did
not report VTE prevalence among patients who did or did not take anticoagulants or aspirin.
There is very little published evidence on the efficacy of outpatient use of limb compression devices for DVT prophylaxis after major nonorthopedic surgery. There are no RCTs that evaluate outpatient use of limb compression as an adjunct to pharmacologic prophylaxis in patients without a contraindication to anticoagulants. There is also a lack of evidence on compliance with limb compression devices in the
outpatient setting. National clinical guidelines support the use of limb compression devices for DVT prophylaxis after major nonorthopedic surgery in individuals at moderate and high risk of DVT. Moreover, 1 RCT, which found significantly fewer VTEs in patients undergoing cranial or neurosurgery who used a portable IPC than those receiving usual care; treatment occurred in both the inpatient and outpatient settings.
Summary of Evidence
Patients undergoing major surgery, particularly orthopedic surgery, are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and VTE prophylaxis for high-risk patients may be indicated beyond the period of hospitalization. Pharmacologic prophylaxis is the mainstay of treatment, but some patients have contraindications to anticoagulation, such as a high bleeding risk. For these patients who are undergoing major orthopedic surgery or other high-risk surgeries, limb compression devices are a reasonable alternative when prophylaxis is indicated in the outpatient setting. This is based on support in clinical practice guidelines, evidence from randomized controlled trials on different populations, and the lack of other good alternatives. Therefore, the use of limb compression devices for outpatient VTE prophylaxis may be considered medically necessary when prophylaxis is indicated but there are contraindications to anticoagulation.
For patients who do not have contraindications to anticoagulation, the evidence is not sufficient to determine whether limb compression devices offer additional benefit. There is a lack of studies that evaluate the incremental benefit of limb compression devices in addition to anticoagulants and a lack of evidence on outpatient compliance. Therefore, outpatient use of limb compression devices for VTE prophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery in patients who do not have a contraindication to pharmacologic prophylaxis is considered investigational.
Practice Guidelines and Position Statements
In 2012, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) published updated evidence-based guidelines on prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery and nonorthopedic surgical patients.
ACCP recommendations on use of limb compression devices in orthopedic surgical patients(1):
“2.1.1 In patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), we recommend use of one of the following for a minimum of 10 to 14 days rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis: low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist (VKA), aspirin (all Grade 1B) , or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) (Grade 1C).”
“2.1.2 In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (HFS), we recommend use of one of the following rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis for a minimum of 10 to 14 days: LMWH, fondaparinux, LDUH, adjusted-dose VKA, aspirin (all Grade 1B), or an IPCD (Grade 1C).”
“2.5. In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we suggest using dual prophylaxis with an antithrombotic agent and an IPCD during the hospital stay (Grade 2C).
“2.6. In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and increased risk of bleeding, we suggest using an IPCD or no prophylaxis rather than pharmacologic treatment (Grade 2C).”
For all of the above recommendations related to pneumatic compression pumps, ACCP recommended only portable, battery-powered devices be used and stated that efforts should be made to ensure devices are worn for 18 h/d. The authors noted that compliance is the biggest challenge associated with use of pneumatic compression devices.
ACCP recommendations on use of limb compression devices in nonorthopedic general and abdominal-pelvic surgical patients, stratified by patient risk of VTE and risk of bleeding(3):
Note: A recommended standard duration of prophylaxis was not defined. However, “extended duration” prophylaxis was defined as lasting 4 weeks.
Very low risk patients (<0.5%): “We recommend that no specific pharmacologic (Grade 1B) or mechanical (Grade 2C) prophylaxis be used other than early ambulation.”
Low risk for VTE (about 1.5%): “We suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C).”
Moderate risk for VTE (about 3%) and not at high risk of bleeding: “We suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (Grade 2B), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC (Grade 2C), over no prophylaxis.”
Moderate risk for VTE (about 3%) and high risk for major bleeding complications or in whom bleeding consequences would be particularly severe: “We suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C).”
High risk for VTE (about 6.0%) and not at high risk of bleeding: “We recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis with LMWH (Grade 1B) or LDUH (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. We suggest that mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings (ES) or IPC should be added to pharmacologic
prophylaxis (Grade 2C).”
High risk for VTE (about 6.0%) and high risk for major bleeding complications or in whom bleeding consequences would be particularly severe: ”We suggest use of mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC, over no prophylaxis until the risk of bleeding diminishes and pharmacologic prophylaxis may be initiated (Grade 2C).”
High- risk for VTE, both LMWH and unfractionated heparin contraindicated or unavailable and not at high risk for major bleeding complications: “We suggest low-dose aspirin (Grade 2C), fondaparinux (Grade 2C), or mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with IPC (Grade 2C), over no prophylaxis.”
High-risk for VTE, undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer and not otherwise at high risk for major bleeding complications: “We recommend extended duration pharmacologic prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWH over limited-duration prophylaxis (Grade 1B).”
In 2011, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons published an updated guideline on prevention of VTE in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty.(2) The guideline included the following recommendations relevant to this policy:
“- The work group suggests the use of pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical compressive devices for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, and who are not at elevated risk beyond that of the surgery itself for venous thromboembolism or bleeding. (Grade of Recommendation: Moderate)
- Current evidence is unclear about which prophylactic strategy (or strategies) is/are optimal or suboptimal. Therefore, the work group is unable to recommend for or against specific prophylactics in these patients. (Grade of Recommendation: Inconclusive)
- In the absence of reliable evidence about how long to employ these prophylactic strategies, it is the opinion of this work group that patients and physicians discuss the duration of prophylaxis. (Grade of Recommendation: Consensus)
- In the absence of reliable evidence, it is the opinion of this work group that patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, and who have also had a previous venous thromboembolism, receive pharmacologic prophylaxis and mechanical compressive devices. (Grade of
- In the absence of reliable evidence, it is the opinion of this work group that patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, and who also have a known bleeding disorder (eg, hemophilia) and/or active liver disease, use mechanical compressive devices for preventing venous
thromboembolism. (Grade of Recommendation: Consensus)”
In 2007, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published a practice bulletin on prevention of DVT and PE after gynecologic surgery.(5) As with ACCP recommendations described earlier, prophylaxis recommendations varied according to patient risk level. For patients at moderate and high risk of DVT, intermittent pneumatic compression was one of the recommended options for DVT prophylaxis. For patients at highest risk, ie, older than 60 years plus prior VTE, cancer or molecular hypocoagulable state, IPC or graduated compression stockings plus LDUH or LMWH was recommended as a prophylaxis option. For all but the highest risk patients, the practice bulletin stated that, when IPC
devices were used, “the devices should be used continuously until ambulation and discontinued only at the time of hospital discharge.” For the highest risk patients, the document stated that continuing prophylaxis for 2 to 4 weeks after discharge should be considered.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has not addressed approaches to venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.
Medicare National Coverage
There is no national coverage determination (NCD). In the absence of an NCD, coverage decisions are left to the discretion of local Medicare carriers.
- Falck-Ytter Y, Francis CW, Johanson NA, et al. Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. Feb 2012;141(2 Suppl):e278S-325S. PMID 22315265
- American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). Preventing venous thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty. www.guideline.gov. Accessed 2014, November.
- Gould MK, Garcia DA, Wren SM, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgical patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. Feb 2012;141(2 Suppl):e227S-277S. PMID 22315263
- Fisher WD. Impact of venous thromboembolism on clinical management and therapy after hip and knee arthroplasty. Can J Surg. Oct 2011;54(5):344-351. PMID 21774881
- Committee on Practice Bulletins--American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 84: Prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Obstet Gynecol. Aug 2007;110(2 Pt 1):429-440. PMID 17666620
- Froimson MI, Murray TG, Fazekas AF. Venous thromboembolic disease reduction with a portable pneumatic compression device. J Arthroplasty. Feb 2009;24(2):310-316. PMID 18534456
- Zareba P, Wu C, Agzarian J, et al. Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing combined compression and anticoagulation with either modality alone for prevention of venous thromboembolism after surgery. Br J Surg. Aug 2014;101(9):1053-1062. PMID 24916118
- Kakkos SK, Warwick D, Nicolaides AN, et al. Combined (mechanical and pharmacological) modalities for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in joint replacement surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Jun 2012;94(6):729-734. PMID 22628585
- Sobieraj DM, Coleman CI, Tongbram V, et al. Comparative effectiveness of combined pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis versus either method alone in major orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy. Mar 2013;33(3):275-283. PMID 23401017
- Colwell CW, Jr., Froimson MI, Anseth SD, et al. A mobile compression device for thrombosis prevention in hip and knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Feb 5 2014;96(3):177-183. PMID 24500578
- Colwell CW, Jr., Froimson MI, Mont MA, et al. Thrombosis prevention after total hip arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized trial comparing a mobile compression device with low-molecular-weight heparin. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Mar 2010;92(3):527-535. PMID 20194309
- Hardwick ME, Pulido PA, Colwell CW, Jr. A mobile compression device compared with low-molecular-weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in total hip arthroplasty. Orthop Nurs. Sep-Oct 2011;30(5):312-316. PMID 21934585
- Kakkos SK, Caprini JA, Geroulakos G, et al. Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and pharmacological prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008(4):CD005258. PMID 18843686
- Rahn DD, Mamik MM, Sanses TV, et al. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in gynecologic surgery: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. Nov 2011;118(5):1111-1125. PMID 22015880
- Sobieraj-Teague M, Hirsh J, Yip G, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a new portable calf compression device (Venowave) for prevention of venous thrombosis in high-risk neurosurgical patients. J Thromb Haemost. Feb 2012;10(2):229-235. PMID 22188037
|CPT||No applicable code|
|ICD-9-CM Diagnosis||714.0-714.9||Rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory polyarthropathies code range|
|715.00-715.98||Osteoarthrosis code range (fifth digit 5 would be used for hip and fifth digit 6 would be used for knee)|
|716.15,716.16||Traumatic arthopathy (hip and knee codes respectively)|
|733.14||Pathologic fracature of neck of femur|
|820.00-820.9||Fracture of neck of femur code range|
|821.00-821.11||Fracture of shaft of femur code range|
|V43.64, V43.65||Organ or tissue replaced by other means, joint (hip and knee codes respectively)|
|V54.81||Aftercare following joint replacement|
|HCPCS||E0650-E0673||Pneumatic compression device code range|
|E0676||Intermittent limb compression device (includes all accessories), not otherwise specified|
|ICD-10-CM (effective 10/1/15)||M05.051-M05.59; M05.061-M05.069||Felty's syndrome, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.151-M05.159; M05.161-M05.169||Rheumatoid lung disease with rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.251-M05.259; M05.261-M05.269||Rheumatoid vasculitis with rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.351-M05.359; M05.361-M05.369||Rheumatiod heart disease with rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.451-M05.459; M05.461-M05.469||Rheumatoid myopathy with rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.551-M05.559; M05.561-M05.569||Rheumatoid polyneuropathy with rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.651-M05.659; M05.661- M05.669||Rheumatoid arthritis with involvement of other organs and systems, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.751-M05.759; M05.761-M05.769||Rheumatiod arthritis with rheumatoid factor without organ or systems involvment, hip and knee code ranges|
|M05.851-M05.859; M05.861-M05.869||Other rheumatoid arthritis with rheumatoid factor, hip and knee code ranges|
|M06.051-M06.059; M06.061-M06.069||Rheumatoid arthritis without rheumatoid factor, hip and knee code ranges|
|M06.851-M06.859; M06.861-M06.869||Other specified rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M08.051-M08.059; M08.061-M08.069||Unspecified juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M08.251-M08.259; M08.261-M08.269||Junvenile rheumatoid arthritis with systemic onset, hip and knee code ranges|
|M08.451-M08.459; M08.461-M08.469||Pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M08.851-M08.859; M08.861-M08.869||Other juvenile arthritis, hip and knee code ranges|
|M08.951-M08.959; M08.961-M08.969||Juvenile arthritis, unspecified, hip and knee code ranges|
|M12.551-M12.599; M12.561- M12.569||Traumatic arthropathy, hip and knee code ranges|
|M15.0-M15.9||Polyosteoarthritis code range|
|M16.0-M16.9||Osteoarthritis of hip code range|
|M17.0-M17.9||Osteoarthritis of knee code range|
|M80.051-M80.059||Age-realated osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, femur code range|
|M80.851-M80.859||Other osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, femur code range|
|M84.451-M84.453; M84.459||Pathological fracture, femur and hip unspecified code range|
|M84.550-M84.553; M84.559||Pathological fracture in neoplastic disease, femur and hip unspecified code range|
|M84.650-M84.653; M84.659||Pathological fracture in other diesase, femur and hip unspcified code range|
|S72.001A-S72.399S||Fracture of head and neck of femur code range|
|ICD-10-PCS (effective 10/1/15)||Not applicable. ICD-10-PCS codes are only used for inpatient services. There are no ICD procedure codes for equipment and supplies.|
Deep Vein Thrombus Prevention
Pneumatic Compression Devices
|12/13/12||Add to Durable Medical Equipment Section||New policy created with literature search through November 2012. Outpatient use of limb pneumatic compression devices after major orthopedic surgery is considered medically necessary in patients with a contraindication to pharmacological agents i.e., at high-risk for bleeding. Outpatient use is considered medically necessary after major non-orthopedic surgery in patients who are at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism with a contraindication to pharmacological agents. Other outpatient uses are investigational and outpatient use beyond 30 days post-surgery is not medically necessary.|
|2/14/13||Replace policy-coding correction only||E0675 removed from code table as it is for arterial insufficiency and this policy is specific to venous thromboembolism|
|12/12/13||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature search through November 18, 2013. “Pneumatic” removed from policy statements and policy title. Major nonorthopedic surgery changed to “major nonorthopedic surgery or nonmajor orthopedic surgery” in 3rd and 4th policy statements. “Postsurgical” added to policy. Reference 8 added; other references renumbered.|
|12/11/14||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature review through October 20, 2014. References 7 and 10 added. No change to policy statements|