|MP 8.01.28||Hematopoietic Stem-cell Transplantation for CNS Embryonal Tumors and Ependymoma|
|Original Policy Date
|Last Review Status/Date
Reviewed with literature search/11:2012
|Return to Medical Policy Index|
Our medical policies are designed for informational purposes only and are not an authorization, or an explanation of benefits, or a contract. Receipt of benefits is subject to satisfaction of all terms and conditions of the coverage. Medical technology is constantly changing, and we reserve the right to review and update our policies periodically.
High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has been investigated as a possible therapy in pediatric patients with brain tumors, particularly in patients with disease that is considered high risk. In addition, the use of HSCT has allowed for a reduction in the dose of radiation needed to treat both average and high-risk disease, with preservation of quality of life and intellectual functioning, without compromising survival.
Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation (HSCT)
HSCT refers to a procedure in which hematopoietic stem cells are infused to restore bone marrow function in cancer patients who receive bone-marrow-toxic doses of cytotoxic drugs. Bone-marrow stem cells may be obtained from the transplant recipient (i.e., autologous HSCT) or from a donor (i.e., allogeneic HSCT). They can be harvested from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood and placenta shortly after delivery of neonates.
Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Brain Tumors
Autologous HSCT allows for escalation of chemotherapy doses above those limited by myeloablation and has been tried in patients with high-risk brain tumors in an attempt to eradicate residual tumor cells and improve cure rates. The use of allogeneic HSCT for solid tumors does not rely on escalation of chemotherapy intensity and tumor reduction but rather on a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Allogeneic HSCT is not commonly used in solid tumors and may be used if an autologous source cannot be cleared of tumor or cannot be harvested.
CNS Embryonal Tumors
Classification of brain tumors is based on both histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and location in the brain. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors are more common in children and are the most common brain tumor in childhood. CNS embryonal tumors are primarily composed of undifferentiated round cells, with divergent patterns of differentiation. It has been proposed that these tumors be merged under the term primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); however, histologically similar tumors in different locations in the brain demonstrate different molecular genetic alterations. Embryonal tumors of the CNS include medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, supratentorial PNETs (pineoblastoma, cerebral neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma), ependymoblastoma, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT).
Medulloblastomas account for 20% of all childhood CNS tumors. The other types of embryonal tumors are rare by comparison. Surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy with the goal being gross total resection with adjuvant radiation therapy, as medulloblastomas are very radiosensitive. Treatment protocols are based on risk stratification, as average or high risk. The average-risk group includes children older than 3 years, without metastatic disease, and with tumors that are totally or near totally resected (<1.5 cm² of residual disease). The high-risk group includes children aged 3 years or younger, or with metastatic disease, and/or subtotal resection (>1.5 cm2 of residual disease). (1)
Current standard treatment regimens for average-risk medulloblastoma (postoperative craniospinal irradiation with boost to the posterior fossa followed by 12 months of chemotherapy) have resulted in 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 80% or better. (1) For high-risk medulloblastoma treated with conventional doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the average event-free survival (EFS) at 5 years ranges from 34–40% across studies. (2) Fewer than 55% of children with high-risk disease survive longer than 5 years. The treatment of newly diagnosed medulloblastoma continues to evolve, and in children younger than age 3 years, because of the concern of the deleterious effects of craniospinal radiation on the immature nervous system, therapeutic approaches have attempted to delay and sometimes avoid the use of radiation and have included trials of higher-dose chemotherapeutic regimens with autologous HSCT.
Supratentorial PNETs (sPNET) are most commonly located in the cerebral cortex and pineal region. The prognosis for these tumors is worse than for medulloblastoma, despite identical therapies. (2) After surgery, children are usually treated similarly to children with high-risk medulloblastoma. Three- to 5-year OS rates of 40–50% have been reported, and for patients with disseminated disease, survival rates at 5 years range from 20–30%. (3)
Recurrent childhood CNS embryonal tumor is not uncommon, and depending on which type of treatment the patient initially received, autologous HSCT may be an option. For patients who receive high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HSCT for recurrent embryonal tumors, objective response is 50–75%; however, long-term disease control is obtained in fewer than 30% of patients and is primarily seen in patients in first relapse with localized disease at the time of relapse. (3)
Ependymoma is a neuroepithelial tumor that arises from the ependymal lining cell of the ventricles and is, therefore, usually contiguous with the ventricular system. An ependymoma tumor typically arises intracranially in children, while in adults, a spinal cord location is more common. Ependymomas have access to the cerebrospinal fluid and may spread throughout the entire neuroaxis. Ependymomas are distinct from ependymoblastomas due to their more mature histologic differentiation. Initial treatment of ependymoma consists of maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. Chemotherapy usually does not play a role in the initial treatment of ependymoma. However, disease relapse is common, typically occurring at the site of origin. Treatment of recurrence is problematic; further surgical resection or radiation therapy is usually not possible. Given the poor response to conventional-dose chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HSCT has been investigated as a possible salvage therapy.
Note: Other CNS tumors include astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma multiforme. However, these tumors arise from glial cells and not neuroepithelial cells. These tumors are considered separately in policy No. 8.01.31
Note: Due to their neuroepithelial origin, peripheral neuroblastoma and Ewing’s sarcoma may be considered PNETs. However, these peripheral tumors are considered separately in policy No. 8.01.34.
Embryonal tumors of the CNS
Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation may be considered medically necessary as consolidation therapy for previously untreated embryonal tumors of the CNS that show partial or complete response to induction chemotherapy, or stable disease after induction therapy. (see Policy Guidelines)
Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation may be considered medically necessary to treat recurrent embryonal tumors of the CNS.
Tandem autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant is investigational to treat embryonal tumors of the CNS.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is investigational to treat embryonal tumors of the CNS.
Autologous, tandem autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant is investigational to treat ependymoma.
BlueCard/National Account Issues
- State mandates requiring coverage for autologous bone marrow transplantation offered as part of NIH-approved clinical trials of autologous bone marrow transplantation.
- Some plans may participate in voluntary programs offering coverage for patients participating in NIH-approved clinical trials of cancer chemotherapies, including autologous bone marrow transplantation.
- Some contracts or certificates of coverage (e.g., FEP) may include specific conditions in which autologous bone marrow transplantation would be considered eligible for coverage.
This policy was originally created in December 1998 and was updated regularly with searches of the MEDLINE database. The most recent literature search was performed for the period of October 2011 through October 2012. Following is the summary of the key literature to date.
CNS Embryonal Tumors
Chintagumpala and colleagues reviewed event-free survival (EFS) of 16 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET) treated with risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1996 and 2003. (4) Eight patients were considered at average risk, and 8 were at high risk (defined as the presence of residual tumor larger than 1.5 cm2 or disseminated disease in the neuroaxis). Median age at diagnosis was 7.9 years (range: 3–21 years). Seven patients had pineal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 12 patients were alive. Five-year EFS and overall survival (OS) for the patients with average-risk disease were 75% (+/- 17%) and 88% (+/- 13%), respectively and for the high-risk patients 60% (+/- 19%) and 58% (+/- 19%), respectively. No treatment-related toxicity deaths were reported. The authors concluded that high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell support after risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation allows for a reduction in the dose of radiation needed to treat nonmetastatic, average-risk sPNET, without compromising EFS.
Fangusaro and colleagues reported outcomes for 43 children with newly diagnosed sPNET treated prospectively on two serial studies (Head Start 1 [HS1] and Head Start 2 [HS2]) between 1991 and 2002 with intensified induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous HSCT. (2) There were no statistical differences between HS1 and HS2 patient demographics. After maximal surgical resection, patients underwent induction chemotherapy. If, after induction, the disease remained stable or there was partial or complete response, patients underwent myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous HSCT (n=32). Patients with progressive disease at the end of induction were not eligible for consolidation. Five-year EFS and OS were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24–53%) and 49% (95% CI: 33–62%), respectively. Patients with nonpineal tumors did significantly better than patients with pineal PNETs (2-year and 5-year EFS of 57% vs. 23% and 48% vs. 15%, respectively, and 2-year and 5-year OS of 70% vs. 31% and 60% vs. 23%, respectively). Sixty percent of survivors were alive without exposure to radiation therapy.
Dhall and colleagues reported outcomes for children younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis of nonmetastatic medulloblastoma, after being treated with 5 cycles of induction chemotherapy and subsequent myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous HSCT. (5) Twenty of 21 children enrolled completed induction chemotherapy, of whom 14 had a gross total surgical resection and 13 remained free of disease at the completion of induction chemotherapy. Of 7 patients with residual disease at the beginning of induction, all achieved a complete radiographic response to induction chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients who received consolidation chemotherapy, 18 remained free of disease at the end of consolidation. In patients with gross total tumor resection, 5-year EFS and OS were 64% (+/- 13) and 79% (+/- 11), respectively, and for patients with residual tumor, 29% (+/- 17) and 57% (+/-19), respectively. There were 4 treatment-related deaths. The need for craniospinal irradiation was eliminated in 52% of the patients, and 71% of survivors avoided irradiation completely, with preservation of quality of life and intellectual functioning.
Gajjar and colleagues reported the results of risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HSCT in 134 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma. (6) After tumor resection, patients were classified as having average-risk disease (n=86), defined as equal to or less than 1.5 cm2 residual tumor and no metastatic disease, or high-risk disease (n=48), defined as greater than 1.5 cm2 residual disease or metastatic disease localized to the neuroaxis. A total of 119 children completed the planned protocol. Five-year OS was 85% (95% CI: 75–94%) among the average-risk cases and 70% (95% CI: 54–84%) in the high-risk patients. Five-year EFS was 83% (95% CI: 73–93%) and 70% (95% CI: 55–85%) for average- and high-risk patients, respectively. No treatment-related deaths were reported.
Lee and colleagues retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 13 patients diagnosed with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) who were treated at their institute at Seoul National Children’s University Hospital (Korea). (7) The median age was 12 months (range: 3–67 months), and 7 patients were younger than 1-year old at the time of diagnosis. Three patients (23%) underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HSCT. The authors assessed the impact on OS in these 3 patients, as compared to the remaining 10 patients undergoing other chemotherapy regimens. No statistical difference in OS was observed between these 2 groups (p=0.36); however, the median survival was reported to be higher in the HSCT group (15 months) compared to the non-HSCT group (9 months). (7)
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Trial Database (PDQ®)
- A Phase III study of combination chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and an autologous peripheral bloodstem-cell transplantin treating young patients with AT/RT (NCT00653068, COG-ACNS0333) is active. The primary purpose of this multi-center study (being undertaken in 87 trial sites across the U.S., Australia, and Canada) is to determine the EFS and OS of children (birth to 21 years of age) with AT/RT treated with surgery, high-dose chemotherapy combined with HSCT, and radiation therapy. Expected enrollment is 70 patients, with an estimated trial completion date of June 2017.
- A Phase III study of radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplant in patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (NCT00085202, SJCRH-SJMB03) is active. The purpose of the study is to compare 2 different regimens of radiation therapy when given together with chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplant. Projected accrual is 413 patients, and estimated date of study completion is September 2018.
- A Phase III pilot study of induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation myeloablative chemotherapy comprising thiotepa and carboplatin with or without etoposide followed by autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue in pediatric patients with previously untreated malignant brain tumors (NCT00392886; CHLA-HEAD-START-III) is closed. The study compares 2 alternative induction regimens prior to myeloablative chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue. Expected enrollment was 120 patients, with an estimated trial completion date in December 2010. The publication date of this study is presently unknown.
- A Phase III randomized study of intensive induction chemotherapy comprising vincristine, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and cisplatin with or without high-dose methotrexate and leucovorin followed by consolidation chemotherapy comprising carboplatin and thiotepa and peripheral blood stem-cell rescue in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors or high-risk medulloblastoma (NCT00336024, COG-ACNS0334) is active. The study was intended to compare the response rate of induction therapy with or without methotrexate and leucovorin. Expected enrollment is 96 patients, with an estimated trial completion date of September 2018.
Raghuram and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature regarding the outcome of patients with relapsed sPNET treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HSCT.(8) Eleven observational studies published before 2010 met their inclusion criteria; 4 of these were prospective case-series. The 11 studies consisted of 46 patients diagnosed with relapsed sPNET or pineoblastoma who received autologous HSCT for treatment of relapse. Of those, 15 patients were children younger than 3 years of age, and 15 were pineoblastomas. With a median follow-up of 40 months (range 3-123 months) 15 patients were reported alive. Thirteen patients (of 15 survivors) did not receive craniospinal irradiation. The 12-month OS rate of the cohort was 44.2 ± 7.5 months. Twelve-month OS for children younger than 36 months was 66.7 ± 12.2 months, while for older children, 12-month OS was 27.8 ± 10.6 (p=0.003). Twelve-month OS was 20.0 ± 10.3 for those patients with pineoblastoma versus 54.6 ± 9.0 for those with non-pineal sPNETs (p<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed pineal location as the only independent adverse prognostic factor. (8) Based on these pooled results, high-dose chemotherapy with HSCT might lead to survival primarily in younger children with relapsed sPNET, even in the absence of concomitant use of radiotherapy, whereas the outcome in older children and/or in a pineal location is poor with this modality.
Dunkel and colleagues report an expanded series with longer follow-up using autologous HSCT for previously irradiated recurrent medulloblastoma. (9, 10) Twenty-five patients were treated between 1990 and 1999 and included 18 males and 7 females with a median age at diagnosis of 11.5 years (range: 4.2-35.5 years). Median age at the time of HSCT was 13.8 years (range: 7.6-44.7 years). All patients had previously received postoperative external-beam radiation with (n=15) or without (n=10) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis to disease relapse or progression was 29.8 months (range: 5.3-114.7 months). Stage at the time of relapse was M0 n=6, M1 n=1, M2 n=8, M3 n=10 (M0=no evidence of subarachnoid or hematogenous metastasis, M1=tumor cells found in cerebrospinal fluid, M2=intracranial tumor beyond primary site, M3=gross nodular seeding in spinal subarachnoid space). High-dose chemotherapy prior to HSCT consisted of carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide. Treatment-related mortality was 12% within 30 days of transplant. Tumor recurred in 16 patients at a median of 8.5 months after HSCT (range: 2.3-58.5 months). Median OS was 26.8 months (95% CI: 11.9-51.1 months) and EFS and OS at 10 years post-HSCT was 24% for both (95% CI: 9.8-41.7%). The authors concluded that this retrieval strategy provides long-term EFS for some patients with previously irradiated recurrent medulloblastoma.
In the earlier publication, Dunkel and colleagues reported the outcomes of 23 patients with recurrent medulloblastoma treated with high-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide. (10) Seven patients were event-free survivors at a median of 54 months, with OS estimated at 46% at 36 months. HSCT was expected to be most effective with minimal disease burden. Thus, Dunkel and colleagues suggested increased surveillance for recurrence or aggressive surgical debulking at the time of recurrence. The authors also acknowledged the potential for effects of patient selection bias on their results, since not all patients eligible for the protocol were enrolled.
Grodman et al. reported outcomes of 8 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma with metastasis (n=7) and relapsed germinoma (n=1) who received dose-intensive chemotherapy with autologous HSCT. (11) Mean age was 12.9 years (range: 5–27.8 years). Mean survival post-transplant was 4.8 years (range: 8–160+ months). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 75% and 50%, respectively.
Gill and colleagues reported outcomes for 23 adult patients (18 years or older) treated for recurrent embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors between 1976 and 2004, comparing high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HSCT (n=10) with a historic control group of patients treated with conventional-dose chemotherapy (n=13). (12) In the HSCT group, 6 patients received tandem autologous transplants. Autologous HSCT was associated with increased survival (p=0.044) and a longer time to disease progression (TTP) (p=0.028). Median TTP for the conventional versus HSCT group was 0.58 years and 1.25 years, respectively. Median survival was 2.00 years and 3.47 years, respectively. There were no long-term survivors in the conventional chemotherapy group. With a median follow-up of 2.9 years, 5 of the HSCT patients were alive, 4 without disease progression. In a comparison of outcomes between the patients who received a single versus tandem transplant, there was improvement in TTP favoring tandem transplant (p=0.046), but no difference in survival was observed (p=0.132).
Park and colleagues reported the results of tandem double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HSCT in 6 children younger than 3 years of age with newly diagnosed AT/RT. (13) No treatment-related death occurred during the tandem procedure, and 5 (of 6) patients were alive at a median follow-up of 13 months (range 7-64) from first HSCT. Although 3 patients remained progression-free after tandem HSCT, the effectiveness of this modality is unclear, because all survivors received radiotherapy, as well as tandem HSCT. (13)
Sung and colleagues reported the results of a single or tandem double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HSCT in 25 children with newly diagnosed high-risk or relapsed medulloblastoma or PNET following surgical resection. (14) Three-year EFS for patients in complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) and less than PR at first high-dose chemotherapy was 67% or 16.7%, respectively. For 19 cases in CR or PR at first high-dose chemotherapy, 3-year EFS was 89% in the tandem double group and 44% in the single high-dose chemotherapy group, respectively. Four treatment-related deaths occurred, and in 4 of 8 young children, craniospinal radiotherapy was successfully withheld without relapse.
The use of allogeneic HSCT for CNS embryonal tumors consists of rare case reports with mixed results. (15-17)
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Trial Database (PDQ®)
No Phase III randomized trials using HSCT for recurrent embryonal CNS tumors are identified.
Literature regarding autologous HSCT for the treatment of ependymoma primarily consists of small case series. Sung and colleagues reported the results of tandem double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous HSCT in 5 children younger than 3 years of age with newly diagnosed anaplastic ependymoma. (18) All patients were alive at median follow-up of 45 months (range 31–62) from diagnosis, although tumor progressed at the primary site in one patient. No significant endocrine dysfunction occurred except for hypothyroidism in one patient, and one patient had significant neurologic injury from primary surgical treatment. (18) The results of this very small case series indicate that treatment with tandem HSCT is feasible in very young children with anaplastic ependymoma and that this strategy might also be a possible option to improve survival in these patients without unacceptable long-term toxicity. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed to confirm these results.
Mason and colleagues reported on a case series of 15 patients with recurrent ependymoma. (19) Five patients died of treatment-related toxicities, 8 died from progressive disease, and 1 died of unrelated causes. After 25 months, 1 patient remains alive but with tumor recurrence. The authors concluded that their high-dose regimen of thiotepa and etoposide was not an effective treatment of ependymoma. Grill and colleagues similarly reported a disappointing experience in 16 children treated with a thiotepa-based high-dose regimen. (20)
A small series reported 5-year EFS of 12% (+/- 6%) and OS of 38% (+/- 10%) among 29 children younger than 10 years of age who received autologous HSCT following intensive induction chemotherapy to treat newly diagnosed ependymoma. (21) Importantly, radiation-free survival was only 8% (+/- 5%) in these cases. The results of these series, although limited in size, further suggest HSCT is not superior to other previously reported chemotherapeutic approaches.
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Trial Database (PDQ®)
- A Phase III pilot study of induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation myeloablative chemotherapy comprising thiotepa and carboplatin with or without etoposide followed by autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue in pediatric patients with previously untreated malignant brain tumors, including ependymomas, (NCT00392886; CHLA-HEAD-START-III) is closed. The study compares 2 alternative induction regimens prior to myeloablative chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue. Expected enrollment was 120 patients, with an estimated trial completion date in December 2010. The publication date of this study is presently unknown.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Practice Guidelines 2010
NCCN guidelines on treating CNS tumors do not address the use of autologous HSCT in treating ependymomas. For medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET, autologous HSCT for recurrent disease with maximum safe resection is a category 2A recommendation. (22)
Data from single-arm studies using high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat newly diagnosed central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors have shown an improved survival benefit (both event-free and overall), particularly in patients with disease that is considered high risk. In addition, the use of autologous HSCT has allowed for a reduction in the dose of radiation needed to treat both average and high-risk disease, with preservation of quality of life and intellectual functioning, without compromising survival.
Data from single-arm studies using autologous HSCT to treat recurrent CNS embryonal tumors have shown improved survival benefit for some patients. The results from a recent systematic review of observational studies in patients with relapsed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET) suggest that a sub-group of infants with chemo-sensitive disease might benefit from autologous HSCT, achieving survival without the use of radiation therapy, whereas the outcome in older children and/or in pineal location is poor with this modality.
More data on the use of tandem and allogeneic transplants for CNS embryonal tumors are needed.
The use of HSCT for ependymoma has not shown a survival benefit compared to the use of conventional approaches, and the policy statement regarding ependymoma remains investigational.
- Mueller S, Chang S. Pediatric brain tumors: current treatment strategies and future therapeutic approaches. Neurotherapeutics 2009; 6(3):570-86.
- Fangusaro J, Finlay J, Sposto R et al. Intensive chemotherapy followed by consolidative myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in young children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs): report of the Head Start I and II experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008; 50(2):312-18.
- National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ®). Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors (last modified August 13, 2009). Available online at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/childCNSembryonal/healthprofessional. Last accessed September, 2009.
- Chintagumpala M, Hassall T, Palmer S et al. A pilot study of risk-adapted radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with supratentorial PNET. Neuro Oncol 2009; 11(1):33-40.
- Dhall G, Grodman H, Ji L et al. Outcome of children less than three years old at diagnosis with non-metastatic medulloblastoma treated with chemotherapy on the “Head Start” I and II protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008; 50(6):1169-75.
- Gajjar A, Chintagumpala M, Ashley D et al. Risk-adapted craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma (St Jude Medulloblastoma-96): long-term results from a prospective, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol 2006; 7(10):813-20.
- Lee JY, Kim IK, Phi JH et al. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: the need for more active therapeutic measures in younger patients. J Neurooncol 2012; 107(2):413-9.
- Raghuram CP, Moreno L, Zacharoulis S. Is there a role for high dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue in patients with relapsed supratentorial PNET? J Neurooncol 2012; 106(3):441-7.
- Dunkel I, Gardner S, Garvin J et al. High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with autologous stem cell rescue for patients with previously irradiated recurrent medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol 2010; 12(3):297-303.
- Dunkel IJ, Boyett JM, Yates A et al. High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with autologous stem-cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma. Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(1):222-8.
- Grodman H, Wolfe L, Kretschmar C. Outcome of patients with recurrent medulloblastoma or central nervous system germinoma treated with low dose continuous intravenous etoposide along with dose-intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009; 53(1):33-6.
- Gill P, Litzow M, Buckner J et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in adults with recurrent embryonal tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer 2008; 112(8):1805-11.
- Park ES, Sung KW, Baek HJ et al. Tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in young children with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. J Korean Med Sci 2012; 27(2):135-40.
- Sung KW, Yoo KH, Cho EJ et al. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue in children with newly diagnosed high-risk or relapsed medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007; 48(4):408-15.
- Lundberg JH, Weissman DE, Beatty PA et al. Treatment of recurrent metastatic medulloblastoma with intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Neurooncol 1992; 13(2):151–5.
- Matsuda Y, Hara J, Osugi Y et al. Allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation using positively selected CD34+ cells from HLA-mismatched donors. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998; 21(4):355–60.
- Secondino S, Pedrazzoli P, Schiavetto I et al. Antitumor effect of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT in metastatic medulloblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 2008; 42(2):131-3.
- Sung KW, Lim do H, Lee SH et al. Tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for anaplastic ependymoma in children younger than 3 years of age. J Neurooncol 2012; 107(2):335-42.
- Mason WP, Goldman S, Yates AJ et al. Survival following intensive chemotherapy with bone marrow reconstitution for children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma: a report of the Children’s Cancer Group. J Neurooncol 1998; 37(2):135-43.
- Grill J, Kalifa C, Doz F et al. A high-dose busulfan-thiotepa combination followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation in childhood recurrent ependymoma. A phase-II study. Pediatr Neurosurg 1996; 25(1):7-12.
- Zacharoulis S, Levy A, Chi SN et al. Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007; 49(1):34-40.
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Central Nervous System Cancers (v2). 2011. Available online at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/PDF/cns.pdf. Last accessed October, 2011.
|CPT||38204||Management of recipient hematopoietic cell donor search and cell acquisition|
|38205||Blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cell harvesting for transplantaion, per collection, allogeneic|
|38208||Transplant preparation of hematopoietic progenitor cells; thawing of previously frozen harvest, without washing, per donor (code descriptor revised effective 1/1/12)|
|38209||;thawing of previously frozen harvest with washing, per donor (code descriptor revised effective 1/1/12)|
|38210||Specific cell depletion with harvest, T cell depletion|
|38211||Tumor cell depletion|
|38212||Red blood cell removal|
|38214||Plasma (volume) depletion|
|38215||Cell concentration in plasma, mononuclear, or buffy coat layer|
|38220||Bone marrow; aspiration only|
|38221||Bone marrow; biopsy, needle or trocar|
|38230||Bone marrow harvesting for transplantation; allogeneic (code descriptor revised effective 1/1/12)|
|38232||bone marrow harvesting for transplnation; autologous (new code effective 1/1/12)|
|38240||Bone marrow or blod-derived [eropheral stem-cell transplatation; allogeneic|
|ICD-9 Procedure||41.00||Bone marrow transplant, not otherwise specified|
|41.01||Autologous bone marrow transplant without purging|
|41.02||Allogeneic hone marrow transplant with purging|
|41.03||Allogeneic bone marrow transplant without purging|
|41.04||Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant without purging|
|41.05||Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant without purging|
|41.06||Cord blood stem cell transplant|
|41.07||Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant with purging|
|41.08||Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant with purging|
|41.09||Autologous bone marrow transplant with purging|
|41.91||Aspiration of bone marrow from donor for transplant|
|99.79||Other therapeutic apheresis (includes harvest of stem cells)|
|ICD-9 Diagnosis||191.0–191.9||Malignant neoplasm of brain code range|
|HCPCS||Q0083, Q0084, Q0085||Chemotherapy administration code range|
J9000, J9001, J9010, J9015, J9017, J9020, J9025, J9027, J9031, J9035, J9041, J9045, J9050, J9055, J9060, J9062, J9065, J9070, J9080, J9090, J9091, J9092, J9093, J9094, J9095, J9096, J9097, J9098, J9100, J9110, J9120, J9130, J9140, J9150, J9151, J9160, J9165, J9170, J9175, J9178, J9181, J9182, J9185, J9190, J9200, J9201, J9202, J9206, J9208, J9209, J9211, J9212, J9213, J9214, J9215, J9216, J9217, J9218, J9219, J9225, J9226, J9230, J9245, J9250, J9260, J9261, J9263, J9264, J9265, J9266, J9268, J9270, J9280, J9290, J9291, J9293, J9300, J9303, J9305, J9310, J9320, J9340, J9350, J9355, J9357, J9360, J9370, J9375, J9380, J9390, J9395, J9600, J9999
|Chemotherapy drugs code range|
|G0265||Bryopreservation, freezing and storage of cells for thereapeutic use, each cell line|
|G0266||Thawing and expansion of frozen cells for therapeuticuse, each cell line|
|G0267||Bone marrow or peripheral stem-cell harvest, modification or treatment to eliminate cell type(s) (e.g., T cells, metastic carcinoma)|
|S2150||Bone marrow or blood-derived peripheral stem-cell harvesting and transplantation, allogeneic or autologous, including pheresis, high-dose chemotherapy, and the number of days of post-transplant care in the global definition (including drugs; hospitalization; medical surgical, diagnostic and emergency services)|
|ICD-10-CM (effective 10/1/14)||C71.0-C71.9||Malignant neoplasm of brain|
|ICD-10-PCS (effective 10/1/14)||ICD-10-PCS codes are only used for inpatient services.|
|30243G0, 30243X0, 30243Y0||Percutaneous transfusion, central vein, bone marrow or stem cells, autologous, code list|
|30243G1, 30243X1, 30243Y1||Percutaneous transfusion, central vein, bone marrow or stem cells, nonautologous, code list|
|07DQ0ZZ, 07DQ3ZZ, 07DR0ZZ, 07DR3ZZ, 07DS0ZZ, 07DS3ZZ||Surgical, lymphatic and hemic systems, extraction, bone marrow, code list|
|Type of Service||Therapy|
|Place of Service||Inpatient/Outpatient|
Ependymoma, High-dose Chemotherapy
Ependymoblastoma, High-dose Chemotherapy
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support for PNET and ependymoma
Medulloblastoma, High-dose Chemotherapy
Neuroblastoma, Central, High-dose Chemotherapy
Pinealblastoma, High-dose Chemotherapy
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET), High-dose Chemotherapy
|12/01/99||Add to Therapy section||New policy
Policy represents revision of 8.01.15 to focus entirely on PNET. Policy statement unchanged
|08/15/01||Replace policy||Policy revised to correct type: Page 2 of this policy (under the 2nd “Note”) refers to another policy [No. 8.01.15], but should refer instead to policy No. 8.01.34|
|10/08/02||Replace policy||Policy updated and references added; no change in policy statement|
|07/15/04||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature review for the period of May 2002 through May 2004; policy statement unchanged|
|09/27/05||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature review for the period of May 2004 through August 2005; reference number 3 updated; policy statement unchanged|
|04/17/07||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature search; policy statement added to indicate that multiple-cycle high-dose chemotherapy (with or without associated radiotherapy) and autologous stem-cell support (i.e., tandem transplants) is investigational. Reference number 5 updated; reference numbers 3, 4, and 8 added. Code table updated.|
|05/08/08||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature search; references 1 and 2 added; other references renumbered. No change to policy statements|
|11/12/09||Replace policy||Policy extensively revised with literature search through September 2009; policy title changed to remove “highdose chemotherapy” and to change PNET to embryonal tumors. Policy statement changed regarding autologous
consolidation therapy in patients with previously untreated embryonal tumors showing complete or partial response to, or stable disease after, induction therapy; now considered medically necessary. Other policy statements reworded and separated to address ependymoma and embryonal CNS tumors specifically; however, the intent of the statements remains the same. References 1–8 and 14 added
|11/11/10||Replace policy||Policy revised with literature search through October 2010. References 7, 12-14 added. No change to policy statements.|
|11/10/11||Replace policy||Policy updated with literature search. No references added; no change in policy statements.|
|11/08/12||Replace Policy||Policy updated with literature search. References 7, 8, 13 and 18 added; no change in policy statements.|